These are some of our favorite sources on topics surrounding Criminal Justice and Inequality


“A month before George Floyd’s death, black and white Americans differed sharply in confidence in the police” (Pew Research Center, 2020)

The Code Switch Guide to Race and Policing (NPR, 2020) 

“10 things we know about race and policing in the U.S.” (Pew Research Center, 2020)

“5 facts about crime in the U.S.” (Pew Research Center, 2019)

NYCLU Stop-and-Frisk Data (NYCLU, 2019)

Policing the Black Man edited by Angela J. Davis (Penguin Random House, 2018)

FBI Uniform Crime Reports: Arrest Tables (FBI, 2018)

“Curbing Excessive Force: A Primer on Barriers to Police Accountability” by Kami Chavis (American Constitution Society, 2017)

Police Are Our Government: Politics, Political Science, and the Policing of Race–Class Subjugated Communities by Joe Soss and Vesla Weaver (Annual Review of Political Science, 2017)

Hate Crime Laws to Protect Police are Misguided (Jurist, 2016)

Down, Out, and Under Arrest: Policing and Everyday Life in Skid Row by Forest Stuart (University of Chicago Press, 2016)

“Body-Worn Cameras: Exploring the Unintentional Consequences of Technological Advances and Ensuring a Role for Community Consultation” by Kami Chavis (Wake Forest Law Review, 2016)

1.5 Million Missing Black Men (New York Times, 2015)

Militarization of School Police: One Route on the School-to-Prison Pipeline by Bethany J. Peak (Arkansas Law Review, 2015)

Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: Using Training as a Foundation for Strengthening Community-Police Relationships by Daniela Gilbert et al. (2015)

Booking Students: An Analysis of School Arrests and Court Outcomes by Kerrin Wolf (Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, 2013)

Shaping Citizen Perceptions of Police Legitimacy: A Randomized Field Trial of Procedural Justice by Lorraine Mazerolle, et al. (Criminology, 2013)

Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: Using Training as a Foundation for Strengthening Community-Police Relationships by Daniela Gilbert (2013)

Limited Leverage: Federal Remedies and Policing Reform by Rachel Harmon (Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 2012)

Police Behavior During Traffic and Street Stops by Lynn Langton and Matthew Durose (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011)

Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys by Sergio Rios (NYU Press, 2011)

Effective Police Interactions With Youth: A Program Evaluation by Valerie LaMotte, et al. (Police Quarterly, 2010)

Rethinking How We Police Youth: Incorporating Knowledge of Adolescence into Policing Teens by Lisa H. Thurau (Children’s Legal Rights Journal, 2009)

Across the Thin Blue Line: Police Officers and Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot by Joshua Correll, et al. (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2007)

Race, Police, and the Making of a Political Identity Mexican Americans and the Los Angeles Police Department, 1900-1945 by Edward J. Escobar (University of California Press, 1999)


The Sentencing Project: Trends in U.S. Corrections (2020)

Digital Jail: How Electronic Monitoring Drives Defendants Into Debt (ProPublica, 2019)

American Prison: A Reporter’s Undercover Journey in the Business of Punishment by Shane Bauer (Penguin Random House, 2019)

The Race Gap in US Prisons Is, and Poverty Is Making it Worse (Mother Jones, 2018)

The cold hard facts about America’s private prison system (Fox News, 2018)

Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics by Marie Gottschalk (Princeton University Press, 2016)

Perverse Politics: The Persistence of Mass Imprisonment in the Twenty-First Century by Rebecca U. Thorpe (Perspectives on Politics, 2015)

The Growth of Incarceration in the United States by Jeremy Travis, et al. (National Academies Press, 2014)

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander (2010)

The Black Family and Mass Incarceration by Bruce Western and Christopher Wildeman (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 2009)

Understanding the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry: Research Findings from the Urban Institute’s Prisoner Reentry Portfolio by Demelza Baer, et al. (Urban Institute, 2006)

Doing Time on the Outside: Incarceration and Family Life in Urban America by Donald Braman (University of Michigan Press, 2004)

The Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality by Bruce Western (American Sociological Review, 2002)

Wrongful Convictions

Framing innocence: an experimental test of the effects of wrongful convictions on public opinion by Robert J. Norris & Kevin J. Mullinix (Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2020)

Informant Witnesses and the Risk of Wrongful Convictions by Jessica A. Roth (American Criminal Law Review, 2016)

My Three Decades With Darryl Hunt by Mark Rabil (Albany Law Review, 2011)

Invalid Forensic Science Testimony and Wrongful Convictions by Brandon L. Garrett and Peter J. Neufeld (Virginia Law Review, 2009)

Death Penalty

Current U.S. Death Row Population by Race (Death Penalty Information Center, 2020)

Facts about the Death Penalty (Death Penalty Information Center, 2020)

Executions by State and Region Since 1976 (Death Penalty Information Center, 2020)

Prosecutors, Judges & Criminal Proceedings

What is Transitional Justice? (International Center for Transitional Justice, 2020)

Marching Toward Reform in New Orleans (70 Million Podcast, 2019)

Who Shouldn’t Prosecute the Police by Kate Levine (Iowa Law Review, 2016)

Criminal Proceedings before North Carolina Magistrates by Jessica Smith (UNC School of Government, 2014)

How Prosecutor Elections Fail Us by Ronald F. Wright (Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 2008)

Trial Distortion and the End of Innocence in Federal Criminal Justice by Ronald F. Wright (University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 2005)

The Sentencing Judge As Immigration Judge by Margaret H. Taylor and Ronald F. Wright (Emory Law Journal, 2002)

Bias, Racism and the Criminal Justice System

The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America by Khallil Gibran Muhammad (Harvard University Press, 2019)

“Race, Party, and Representation in Criminal Justice Politics” by Laurel Eckhouse (The Journal of Politics, 2019)

Killing African Americans: Police and Vigilante Violence as a Racial Control Mechanism by Noel Cazenave (2018)

Want to Make America Safe? Here Are 5 Ways to Do That (The Nation, 2016)

“Interorganizational Utility of Welfare Stigma in the Criminal Justice System” by Armanda Lara-Millan and Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve  (Criminology, 2016)

The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black (New York Times, 2015)

Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries by Ana Muñiz (Rutgers University Press, 2015)

The Science of Why Cops Shoot Young Black Men by Chris Mooney (Mother Jones, 2014)

The Essence of Innocence: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children by Phillip A. Goff, et al. (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2014)

The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America by Naomi Murakawa (Oxford University Press, 2014)

Evidence-Based Sentencing and the Scientific Rationalization of Discrimination by Sonja B. Starr (Stanford Law Review, 2014)

Long-Term Reduction in Implicit Race Bias: A Prejudice Habit-Breaking Intervention by Patricia G. Devine, et al. (Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2012)

Defusing Implicit Bias by Jonathan Feingold & Karen Lorang (UCLA Law Review, 2012)

Reconsidering the Relationship Between Perceived Neighborhood Racial Composition and Whites’ Perceptions of Victimization Risk: Do Racial Stereotypes Matter? by Justin T. Pickett, et al. (Criminology, 2012)

Unconscious Influences on Judicial Decision-Making: The Illusion of Objectivity by John Irwin and Daniel Real (McGeorge Law Review, 2010)

Differentially dangerous? Phenotypic racial stereotypicality increases implicit bias among ingroup and outgroup members by K. B. Kahn and Paul G. Davies (Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 2010)

Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problem of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions by Mark Bennett (Harvard Law & Policy Review, 2010)

Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges? by Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, et al. (Notre Dame Law Review, 2009)

Group Threat and Social Control: Race, Perceptions of Minorities and the Desire to Punish by Ryan D. King and Darren Wheelock (Social Forces, 2007)

Frontlash: Race and the Development of Punitive Crime Policy by Vesla M. Weaver (Studies in American Political Development, 2007)

Racial Typification of Crime and Support for Punitive Measures by Ted Chiricos, et al. (Criminology, 2006)

Trojan Horses of Race by Jerry Kang (Harvard Law Review, 2005)

The Consequences of Race for Police Officers’ Responses to Criminal Suspects by E. A. Plant and B. M. Peruche (Psychological Science, 2005)

Attitudes Toward the Police: The Effects of Direct and Vicarious Experience by Dennis P. Rosenbaum, et al. (Police Quarterly, 2005)

Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing by Jennifer L. Eberhardt, et al. (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004)

Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration by Becky Pettit and Bruce Western (American Sociological Review, 2004)

The Politics of Disgust: The Public Identity of the Welfare Queen by Ange-Marie Hancock (NYU Press, 2004)

On the Malleability of Automatic Attitudes: Combating Automatic Prejudice With Images of Admired and Disliked Individuals by Nilanjana Dasgupta and Anthony G. Greenwald (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001)

The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism by Debra Van Ausdale and Joe R. Feagin (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001)

Racial Disparities in Official Assessments of Juvenile Offenders: Attributional Stereotypes as Mediating Mechanisms by George S. Bridges and Sara Steen (American Sociological Review, 1998)

Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics by Michael Dawson (Princeton University Press, 1995)

Criminal Justice & Political Participation

Mobilized by Injustice: Criminal Justice Contact, Political Participation, and Race by Hannah L. Walker (2020)

Voting from Jail Is a Right, and Now a Reality in Chicago (70 Million Podcast, 2020) 

The Civic Voluntarism of “Custodial Citizens”: Involuntary Criminal Justice Contact, Associational Life, and Political Participation by Michael Leo Owens and Hannah L. Walker (Perspectives on Politics, 2018)

Pulled Over: How Police Stops Define Race and Citizenship by Charles R. Epp, et al. (University of Chicago Press, 2014)

Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control by Amy E. Lerman and Vesla M. Weaver (University of Chicago Press, 2014)

Extending the Effects of the Carceral State: Proximal Contact, Political Participation, and Race by Hannah L. Walker (Political Research Quarterly, 2014)

Trading Democracy for Justice: Criminal Convictions and the Decline of Neighborhood Political Participation by Traci Burch (University of Chicago Press, 2013)

Political Consequences of the Carceral State by Vesla M. Weaver and Amy E. Lerman (American Political Science Review, 2010)

Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy by Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen (Oxford University Press, 2006)


Walls, Cages, and Family Separation: Race and Immigration Policy in the Trump Era by Sophia Jordán Wallace and Chris Zepeda-Millán (Cambridge University Press, 2020) 

The expansion of “crimmigration”, mass detention and deportation by Cecilia Menjivar, Andrea Gomez Cervantes and Daniel Alvord (Sociology Compass, 2018)

Undocumented Immigrants Are Tethered to ICE, and Private Companies, by Ankle Monitors (70 Million Podcast, 2018) 

Deportations Under ICE’s Secure Communities Program (TRAC, 2018)

The Criminal Justice System and Latinos in an Emerging Latino Area by Betina Cutaia Wilkinson (SMU Tower Center, 2018)

Secure Communities by the Numbers: An Analysis of Demographics and Due Process by Aarti Kohli, et al. (UC Berkeley Law Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law and Social Policy, 2011)

Police and Immigration Enforcement: Impacts on Latino(a) Residents’ Perceptions of Police by Guadalupe Vidales, et al. (Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 2009)

Latino Immigrants’ Perceptions of Crime and Police Authorities in the United States: A Case Study from the Phoenix Metropolitan Area by Cecilia Menjívar & Cynthia Bejarano (Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2004)

A Gendered Approach to Criminal Justice and Inequality Topics

Creating and Undoing Legacies of Resilience: Black Women as Martyrs in the Black Community Under Oppressive Social Control by Leah Iman Aniefuna, M. Amari Aniefuna &Jason M. Williams (Women and Criminal Justice, 2020)

Thirty Years of Scholarship in the Women and Criminal Justice Journal: Gender, Feminism, and Intersectionality by Brianne Posey, Melissa Kowalski, & Mary Stohr (Women and Criminal Justice, 2020)

How Bail Shackles Women of Color (70 Million Podcast, 2019) 

Incarcerated Women and Girls by The Sentencing Project (2019)

The Legal System Has Failed Black Girls, Women, and Non-Binary Survivors of Violence by Maya Finoh & Jasmine Sankofa (ACLU, 2019)

Putting Women Already in Jail First (70 Million Podcast, 2018)

“Humane” Immigration Enforcement and Latina Immigrants in the Detention Complex by Andrea Gomez Cervantes, Cecilia Menjivar and William Staples (Feminist Criminology, 2017)

Intersectionality of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Age on Criminal Punishment by Darrell Steffensmeier, Noah Painter-Davis, and Jeffery Ulmer (Sociological Perspectives, 2016) 

Terrorizing Latina/o Immigrants: Race, Gender, and Immigration Politics in the Age of Security by Anna Sampaio (Temple University Press, 2015)

Arrested Justice: Black Women, Violence, and America’s Prison Nation by Beth E. Richie (New York University Press, 2012)

Covid-19 & Criminal (In)Justice 

COVID-19 and Youth Impacted by Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice Systems by Elizabeth S. Barnert (Pediatrics, 2020)

Rural Victimization and Policing during the COVID-19 Pandemic by J. Andrew Hansen & Gabrielle L. Lory (American Journal of Criminal Justice, 2020)

Has COVID-19 Changed Crime? Crime Rates in the United States during the Pandemic by John H. Boman IV & Owen Gallupe (American Journal of Criminal Justice, 2020) 

COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Federal and State Prisons by Brendan Saloner,  Kalind Parish, Julie A. Ward (JAMA Network, 2020) 

The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID‐19 on domestic violence by Caroline Bradbury‐Jones and Louise Isham (Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2020)

Films & Videos

13th Film by Ava Duvernay (Netflix, 2020)

When They See Us by Ava Duvernay (mini-series) (Netflix, 2019)

The Hate You Give (20th Century Fox, 2018)

Policing the Police (PBS, 2016)

Gideon’s Army (The Orchard Entertainment, 2013)

MHP: How does it feel to be a problem, Black America? (MSNBC, 2013)

Forsyth County News & Organizations

“Protester Demands Largely Met by Forsyth County Sheriff’s Office” (WFDD, 2020)

Triad Abolition Project

Siembra NC

Forsyth County Community Bail Fund 

Housing Justice Now 

Forsyth Court Support 

Brake Light Clinics with DSA

Prisoner Outreach Initiative

Speaking Events

Mobilized by Injustice: A Book Presentation by Dr. Hannah Walker

On October 8, 2020, RIPI kicked off its inaugural virtual speaker event with Dr. Hannah Walker’s presentation of her latest book, Mobilized by Injustice: Criminal Justice Contact, Political Participation and Race (available for purchase here). Dr. Hannah L. Walker is an assistant professor of Government at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research examines the impact of the criminal justice system on American democracy with special attention to minority and immigrant communities. Previously, she served as an assistant professor of Political Science and Criminal Justice at Rutgers University (2017-2020), and a postdoctoral fellow with the Prisons and Justice Initiative at Georgetown University (2016-2017). She received her PhD in 2016 from the University of Washington. Recording Passcode: Z$9n?oVh